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Section 4: Trusted Setup and Multi-Party Computation

This section covers trusted setup, a process needed to generate the public parameters of a zkSNARK securely. We include some resources on the underlying mathematics and some resources on actually participating in an MPC.


Radioactive Material From Chernobyl Will Help Secure the Next Version of ZCash (pop science article but a fun read)

The design of the ZCash trusted setup ceremony

Announcing the Perpetual Powers of Tau Ceremony

How the AZTEC Multi-Party Computation Ceremony Works (and a more technical explanation)

Tornado Cash Trusted Setup Ceremony and Completion Announcement

Scalable Multi-party Computation for zk-SNARK Parameters: Math heavy. If you're glancing at this, I'd recommend prioritizing sections 1 and 2 of this paper.

VDFs, or "Proof-of-Time": Not directly related to zkSNARKs, but this is a useful cryptographic gadget used to finalize trusted setup parameters.


  • Participate in the Semaphore zkSNARK (Phase 2) Trusted Setup ceremony from your own computer! Follow these instructions to participate. If you're curious, more detailed information about the ceremony can be found here.
  • Participate in the Perpetual Powers of Tau (Phase 1) Trusted Setup ceremony. NOTE: This quest will likely require you to have dedicated hardware and some more technical experience. Contact Brian for more info. Documentation on the ceremony is available here.